Writing a conclusion for a scientific paper

Whatever the case, without a clear conclusion section, reviewers and readers will find it difficult to judge your work and whether it merits publication in the journal.

If you feel you cannot or need not do more than list items, consider using a table or perhaps a schematic diagram rather than a paragraph of text.

Scientific paper introduction example

The quantitative estimation of labelling, which represented the average number of gold particles per mm2, indicated the labelling over the nuclear NLBs to be twice as strong as that over the loosened chromatin, and four times as strong as that over the condensed chromatin Table 2. But do not over-inflate the manuscript with too many references — it doesn't make a better manuscript! Since your Introduction went from the general to a specific question, going from the specific back to the general will help to tie your ideas and arguments together. They are more likely to be cited by other scientists if they are helpful rather than cryptic or self-centered. But, do not restrict yourself to passing comments either. Probably, the most important thing is to thank your funding agency or the agency giving you a grant or fellowship. The specific organism that was studied the bacterium, Escherichia coli. To confirm this assumption, we studied the effects of a range of inhibitors of connexin channels, such as the connexin mimetic peptides Gap26 and Gap27 and anti-peptide antibodies, on calcium signaling in cardiac cells and HeLa cells expressing connexins. Also, Elsevier's Your Paper Your Way program waves strict formatting requirements for the initial submission of a manuscript as long as it contains all the essential elements being presented here. Finally, they structure the content in the body in theorem-proof fashion, stating first what readers must remember for example, as the first sentence of a paragraph and then presenting evidence to support this statement. Avoid sudden introduction of new terms or ideas; you must present everything in the introduction, to be confronted with your results here.

You restate your thesis and summarize your main points of evidence for the reader. Expressions such as "novel," "first time," "first ever," and "paradigm-changing" are not preferred.

Conclusion report example

To this end, they must emphasize both the motivation for the work and the outcome of it, and they must include just enough evidence to establish the validity of this outcome. However, when looking for keywords, avoid words with a broad meaning and words already included in the title. It must summarize the whole paper and explain its main purpose. Also, Elsevier's Your Paper Your Way program waves strict formatting requirements for the initial submission of a manuscript as long as it contains all the essential elements being presented here. The abstract In just under words, the abstract reproduced here conveys the motivation for and the outcome of the work with some accuracy but without intimidating readers by its length. One important general rule to keep in mind is that a scientific paper is a report about something that has been done in the past. The abstract should present, in about words, the purpose of the paper, general materials and methods including, if any, the scientific and common names of organisms , summarized results, and the major conclusions. If you refer to others, is because you are discussing your results, and this must be included in the Discussion section. Here you can see some examples of original titles, and how they were changed after reviews and comments to them: Example 1 Original title: Preliminary observations on the effect of salinity on benthic community distribution within a estuarine system, in the North Sea Revised title: Effect of salinity on benthic distribution within the Scheldt estuary North Sea Comments: Long title distracts readers. The text describes the data presented in the tables and figures and calls attention to the important data that the researcher will discuss in the Discussion section and will use to support Conclusions. The parameter that was measured growth. The conclusion This paragraph of results and discussion above can easily be rewritten below to convey the message first, not last. Task and object An Introduction is usually clearer and more logical when it separates what the authors have done the task from what the paper itself attempts or covers the object of the document. The strain was maintained on malt extract-yeast extract MY agar as described by Tanaka and Kanbe Processes of Organic Evolution.

This paper clarifies the role of CxHc on calcium oscillations in neonatal cardiac myocytes and calcium transients induced by ATP in HL-cells originated from cardiac atrium and in HeLa cells expressing connexin 43 or Sometimes you cannot clarify your idea in words because some critical items have not been studied substantially.

Dedicate some time to think about the title and discuss it with your co-authors.

writing a conclusion for a scientific paper

The specific organism that was studied the bacterium, Escherichia coli. Some journals require that the keywords are not those from the journal name, because it is implicit that the topic is that.

scientific paper structure

Also, some institutes include the number of publications of the organization, e. Materials and methods This paragraph of materials and methods expresses the main idea first, in a topic sentence, so readers immediately know what it is about.

A useful strategy in discussing your experiment is to relate your specific results back to the broad theoretical context presented in the Introduction.

The three examples below are suitable objects of the document for the three tasks shown above, respectively. Use sub-headings to keep results of the same type together, which is easier to review and read.

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11 steps to structuring a science paper editors will take seriously