Using tables and figures in an academic research paper

Results of histopathological analysis of the specimens retrieved at the end of the operation were summarized in Table 1.

How to label figures and tables in a lab report

For instance, using a scatterplot instead of a bar graph for showing levels of hydration is a mistake. And, you'll learn the proper way to incorporate them into your work according to APA formatting. Tables and Figures: Some Basic Advice. Hoagland N. If p value is smaller than 0. Resources to Help You Succeed Understanding and utilizing computer programs like Excel isn't always easy. With this article, you should hopefully gain some new information into producing graphs and tables, which will allow you to produce clear graphs and tables before they reach review. Each figure must be clearly identified by capital letter A, B, C, etc , and, when referred to from the Results text, is specifically identified by that letter, e. Use an easily readable font size for axes and ticks. Hot-off-the-press journals like Science and Nature so limit the body text that virtually all of the Methods are presented in the Figure and Table legends or in footnotes.

This may seem obvious to many of you, and, if it is, it is always good to have a refresher. Superscript letters and notes are used to offer additional, clarifying information.

types of tables in research

More examples Once your statistical analyses are complete, you will need to summarize the data and results for presentation to your readers. Use the same font as the body text.

scientific table format

Resources to Help You Succeed Understanding and utilizing computer programs like Excel isn't always easy. Some general considerations about Figures: Big or little?

List of tables and figures in research paper

American Psychologist, ; 57 10 : — Top of Page The Anatomy of a Table Table 4 below shows the typical layout of a table in three sections demarcated by lines. Your figure should highlight a relationship between variables or some other inference. If you are unsure whether your tables or figures meet these criteria, give them to a fellow biology major not in your course and ask them to interpret your results. Only raw data and tabled data tend to occupy the appendix, i. Use sentences that draw the reader's attention to the relationship or trend you wish to highlight, referring to the appropriate Figure or Table only parenthetically: Germination rates were significantly higher after 24 h in running water than in controls Fig. If you use abbreviations, explain yourself.

Many students go through their academic life producing data in an inadequate way, with the realization only coming when the student gets marked down in either their dissertation or thesis, or when a paper is rejected by a journal. Graphs tend to go through a lot of scrutiny by many reviewers.

Preface or explain what the reader will find and how it relates to the rest of the paper or report.

Using tables and figures in an academic research paper

Color or no color? Using Figures Figures can take many forms, such as bar graphs, frequency histograms, scatterplots, drawings, maps, etc. Keep it simple and help a reader out. Sometimes there is no clear independent variable e. For course-related papers, a good rule of thumb is to size your figures to fill about one-half of a page. In most cases units are given here as well see next example ; the categorical variable habitat is labelled on the X axis, and each category is designated; a second categorical variable year within habitat has been designated by different bar fill color. Also, include a title or caption that is brief but clear in its description.
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Tables and figures in academic writing