Speech writing and thought presentation ideas

Leech, Short 1. NRSA refers either to the speech acts of characters, excluding the content of their speech, or, to the speech acts of characters plus a vague or general description of what has been said, using a circumstantial adjunct instead of a reported clause as in FIS and DS. Hemingway; When converting the DS sentence into IS, the following changes take place: i The inverted commas around the reported clause as well as the question mark are removed. Novelists can use the presentation of thought in a similar way in order to control our sympathies. The reader can follow his chaotic thoughts, as Hemingway once again resorts to FID to render them. By far the most part of the account of speech acts is given in DS which predominantly includes dialogue between two or more people. The tense forms, deictic references, and original lexis are preserved as they have been uttered by the speaker. Foundations of Language, 10, 1— Bennet raised his eyes from his book as she entered, and fixed them on her face with a calm unconcern which was not in the least altered by her communication. Direct speech DS is seen as the norm, as it provides a verbatim account of what was said, while indirect speech IS expresses what was said in the words of the narrator.

Nonetheless, Balls' account of his speech will have been heard by thousands, and potentially affected many people's views as to Osborne's policy decisions and character. With the most extreme form of direct speech, FDS, the reader gets the impression that he is witnessing what the character says without any interference from the narrator.

In order to be able to illustrate the different emphasis and to present these contrasts comprehensibly to the reader, the dialogue in Pride and Prejudice is expanded with direct and indirect versions of speech.

None of the shifts are obligatory, and some are in fact often disregarded by authors. In this case, we should adopt the following procedure: if none of the features indicated in the previous paragraph is converted to their corresponding 'indirect' counterparts, then we are dealing with FDS this occurs even if the reporting clause is presentbut if one or some of the above features are converted to their 'indirect' counterparts, then we are dealing with FIS.

Halliday, M. Leech, Short 1. Concentrating on forms alone will inevitably lead to a loss of the complexity of modes of speech representation. In DS the sentence might look as follows: 'How differently does every thing now appear in which he is concerned! In the following research, the analysis will be limited to direct, indirect and free indirect speech in the novel as well as the presentation of thoughts as an indirect version of speech acts.

Utterances could be regarded as important or less important, a character could appear more strongly than another in the course of the story or whole scenes could excel others in their prominence.

Furthermore, the reader learns in the reporting clause who said the sentence and in which tone it was phrased. Pascal Accordingly, Free Indirect Speech can operate at a relatively minor level in the interpretation of a dialogue and sometimes at a higher level in producing tactical effects.

speech representation

Leech, Geoffrey N. In the following, the different versions of speech and thought presented will be analysed in terms of their occurrence in the novel, their importance and their meaning to the narrator and the reader, as well as exemplified on the basis of selected passages.

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Literary Stylistics Notes no. 19 by Ismail Talib: Speech and Thought Presentation 1