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Parental attitude towards child development

Although these families have benefited in recent years from the expansion of programs and policies aimed at supporting them discussed further below , the number of children living in deep poverty has increased Sherman and Trisi, About six-in-ten American parents in these dual-earning households say they share responsibility evenly for playing or doing activities with children, disciplining children, and taking care of chores. Low-income women with less education are less likely than women of higher socioeconomic status to breastfeed Heck et al. Hyperfocus can also be challenging but can allow a child to get important tasks done. Thereafter and until the child is either age 1 year American Academy of Pediatrics, or 2 years World Health Organization, , it is recommended that children continue to be breastfed while slowly being introduced to other foods. Similar findings are provided by experimental research on dialogic reading, in which adults engage children in discussion about the reading material rather than simply reading to them Mol et al. In another randomized study, mothers who received parent training to improve their empathy toward their children became less permissive with their 2- to 3-year-olds, who became less aggressive Christopher et al. Another important aspect of parent-supported social development pertains to parents aiding their children in acquiring executive function skills needed to adapt to changing needs of the environment and regulate their impulses and responses to distressing situations Blair and Raver, ; Malin et al. Relative to their middle- and upper-class, mainly white, counterparts, low-income and immigrant parents are less likely to report that they read to their children on a regular basis and to have books and other learning materials in the home Markman and Brooks-Gunn, This is followed by brief discussion of the family system as a key source of additional determinants of parenting. Non-white parents include those who are Hispanic or any race other than white. Differences in the responses to this question between mothers and fathers in this type of household are modest. Her participation in a number of services required appointments in different areas of town. While mothers and fathers offer somewhat different views of the division of labor in their household, there is general agreement about who in their family is more job- or career-focused.

The opposite of distractability is hyperfocuswhich is when a child is focused to the point of being unaware of their surroundings. They result from and are enhanced by early positive and supportive interactions with parents and other caregivers.

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Department of Education, ; U. Do not get overwhelmed When a parent is overly stressed, not only does their wellbeing suffer, but they can also be less effective in supporting their child. Early numeracy and math skills also are building blocks for young children's academic achievement Claessens and Engel, This means they may say or do something without thinking it through.

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Another experimental study examined a week population-level behavioral parenting program and found intervention effects on parenting knowledge for mothers and, among the highest-risk families, increased involvement in children's early learning and improved behavior management practices. Even in young children, physical activity is essential for proper energy balance and prevention of childhood obesity Institute of Medicine, ; Kohl and Hobbs, Emotional and Behavioral Competence Children need care that promotes positive emotional health and well-being and that supports their overall mental health, including a positive sense of self, as well as the ability to cope with stressful situations, temper emotional arousal, overcome fears, and accept disappointments and frustrations. The chapter also describes findings from research regarding how core parenting knowledge, attitudes, and practices may differ by specific characteristics of children and parents, as well as by context. While these outcomes are used as a partial organizing framework for this section, several specific practices—contingent responsiveness of parents, organization of the home environment and the importance of routines, and behavioral discipline practices—that have been found to influence child well-being in more than one of these four outcome areas are discussed separately. As discussed in Chapter 4 , helping parents reduce hazards in the home is a component of some home visiting programs. Specific knowledge about health and safety—including knowledge about how to access health care, protect children from physical harm e. From classic anthropological and human development perspectives, parenting often is defined as a primary mechanism of socialization, that is, a primary means of training and preparing children to meet the demands of their environments and take advantage Page 20 Share Cite Suggested Citation:"1 Introduction. Some studies have found a direct association between parental knowledge and child outcomes, including reduced behavioral challenges and improvements on measures of cognitive and motor performance Benasich and Brooks-Gunn, ; Dichtelmiller et al. Longitudinal studies, mostly involving families with older children, indicate that, like other sources of stress, parents' experience of discrimination can have a detrimental effect on parenting and the quality of the parent-child relationship Murray et al. Parenting Attitudes Although considerable discussion has focused on attitudes and beliefs broadly, less research attention has been paid to the effects of parenting attitudes on parents' interactions with young children or on parenting practices. In a review of randomized controlled studies of the effects of group-based parenting programs on behavioral and emotional adjustment, Barlow and colleagues found significant effects of the programs on parent-reported outcomes of children under age 4.

Physical Health and Safety Children need to be cared for in a way that promotes their ability to thrive and ensures their survival and protection from injury and physical and sexual maltreatment. Keep distractions to a minimum If a child is easily distracted, it pays to keep their surroundings uncluttered.

These relationships have been found to hold in experimental studies involving diverse samples. In short, if one does not believe in or value knowledge, one is less likely to act upon it.

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Parenting Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices